Prefixes - Suffixes - Quynh Huong Center for Foreign Language Translation & Education

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2 Sept 2014

Prefixes - Suffixes

I. Prefixes
a- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) not; without: atheist, atypical, asexually.
Aero- combining form: (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with air or aircraft: aerodynamic, aerospace.
Agro- combining form: (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with farming: agro-industry, agriculture.
All-: combining form (in adjectives and adverbs).
1. Completely: an all-British cast, an all-inclusive price.
2. in the highest degree: all-important, all-powerful.
Ambi-: (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) referring to both of two: ambidextrous, ambivalent.
Ante-: (in nouns, adjectives and verbs) before; in front of: ante-room, antenatal, antedate.
Arch- : (in nouns) main; most important or most extreme: archbishop, arch-enemy.
Anthropo- : (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with humans: anthropology.
Anti- (in nouns and adjectives)
1. Opposed to; against: anti-tank weapons, antisocial—compare pro-
2. The opposite of: anti-hero, anticlimax
3. Preventing: antifreeze.
Astro- : (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with the stars or outer space: astronaut, astrophysics.
Atto- (in units of measurement) a factor of 10-18:200 attowatts.
Audio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with hearing or sound: an audiobook (= a reading of a book on cassette, CD, etc.) audio-visual.
Auto- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs)
1. of or by yourself: autobiography
2. by itself without a person to operate it: automatic.
1. (In verbs) to make or treat sb/sth as: Don’t belittle his achievements (= say they are not important). An older girl befriended me.
2. (in adjectives ending in –Ed) wearing or covered with: heavily bejewelled fingers, bespattered with mud
3. (in verbs and adjectives ending in –Ed) to cause sth to be: The ship was becalmed. The rebels besieged the fort.
4. Used to turn intransitive verbs (= without an object) into transitive verbs (= with an object): She is always bemoaning her lot.
Bi- (in nouns and adjectives) two; twice; double: bilingual, bicentenary
Bi- with a period of time can mean either ‘happening twice’ in that period of time, or ‘happening once in every two’ periods.
Biblio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with books: bibliophile.
Bio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with living things or human life: biodegradable, biography.
By- (also bye-) (in nouns and verbs)
1. Less important: a by-product
2. Near: a bystander.
Cardio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with the heart: cardiogram.
Centi- (in nouns)
1. Hundred: centipede
2. (Often used in units of measurement) one hundredth: centimetre.
Chrono- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with time: chronological.
Co- (used in adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs) together with: co-produced, cooperatively, co-author, coexist.
1. (In nouns, verbs and adjectives) against; opposite: contraflow, contradict
2. (In nouns) (music) having a pitch an octave below: a contrabassoon.
Counter- (in nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs)
1. against; opposite: counterterrorism, counter-argument
2. Corresponding: counterpart.
Cross- (in nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs) involving movement or action from one thing to another or between two things: cross-Channel ferries, cross-fertilize, crossfire.
Crypto- (in nouns) secret: a crypto-communist.
Cyber- (in nouns and adjectives) connected with electronic communication networks, especially the Internet: cybernetics, cybercafé.
De- (in verbs and related nouns, adjectives and adverbs)
1. The opposite of: decentralization
2. Removing sth: to defrost the refrigerator (= remove layers of ice from it)
Deca- (in nouns) ten; having ten: decathlon.
Deci- (in nouns; often used in units of measurement) one tenth: decilitre.
Demi- (in nouns) half; partly: demigod.
Demo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with people or population: democracy, democratic.
Di- (chemistry) (in nouns that are names of chemical compounds) containing two atoms or groups of the type mentioned: carbon dioxide.
Dis- (in adjectives, adverbs, nouns and verbs) not; the opposite of: dishonest, disagreeably, disadvantage, disappear.
e- (In nouns and verbs) connected with the use of electronic communication, especially the Internet, for sending Information, doing business, etc.: e-commerce, e-business.
Eco- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with the environment: co-friendly, eco-warriors (= people who protest about damage to the environment) eco-terrorism (= the use of force or violent action in order to protest about damage to the environment)
Electro- (in nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs) connected with electricity: electromagnetism.
En- (before b, m or p) prefix (in verbs)
1. To put into the thing or condition mentioned: encase, endanger, empower
2. To cause to be: enlarge, embolden.
Equi- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) equal; equally: equidistant, equilibrium.
Ex- (in nouns) former: ex-wife, ex-president.
Extra- (in adjectives)
1. outside; beyond: extramarital sex, extraterrestrial beings
2. (Informal) very; more than usual: extra-thin, extra-special.
Fore- (in nouns and verbs)
1. before; in advance: foreword, foretell
2. In the front of: the foreground of the picture.
Geo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) of the earth: geochemical, geoscience.
Haemo- (BrE) (NAmE hemo-) (in nouns and adjectives) connected with blood: haemophilia.
Hecto- (in nouns; often used in units of measurement) one hundred: hectometre.
Hetero- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) other; different: heterogeneous, heterosexual.
Hexa- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) six; having six.
Homo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) the same.
Hydr (o) – (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs)
1. Connected with water
2. (Chemistry) combined with hydrogen.
Hypo- (in adjectives and nouns) under; below normal: hypodermic, hypothermia.
1. (also il-; im- /Im; ir-) (in adjectives, adverbs and nouns) not; the opposite of: Infinite, illogical, immorally, irrelevance
2. (also im-) (in verbs) to put into the condition mentioned: Inflame, imperil.
Infra- (in adjectives) below or beyond a particular limit: Infrared.
Inter- (in verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs) between; from one to another: interface, interaction, international.
Intra- (in adjectives and adverbs) inside; within: intravenous, intra-departmental (= within a department).
Iso- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) equal: isotope, isometric.
Kilo- (in nouns; often used in units of measurement) one thousand: kilojoule.
Macro- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) large; on a large scale: macroeconomics.
Mal- (In nouns, verbs and adjectives) bad or badly; not correct or correctly: malpractice, malodorous, malfunction.
Mega- (in nouns)
1. Very large or great: a megastore
2. (In units of measurement) one million: a megawatt
3. (Computing) 1 048 576 (= 220): megabyte.
Meta- (in nouns, adjectives and verbs)
1. Connected with a change of position or state: metamorphosis, metabolism
2. higher; beyond: metaphysics, metalanguage.
1. (In nouns, adjectives and adverbs) small; on a small scale: microchip, microorganism.
2. (In nouns; used in units of measurement) one millionth: a microlitre.
Mid- (in nouns and adjectives) in the middle of: mid-morning coffee, she’s in her mid-thirties.
Milli- (in nouns; used in units of measurement) one thousandth: milligram.
Mini- (in nouns) small: mini-break (= a short holiday / vacation) minigolf.
Mis- (in verbs and nouns) bad or wrong; badly or wrongly: misbehaviour, misinterpret.
Mono- (in nouns and adjectives) one; single: monorail, monogamy.
Multi- (in nouns and adjectives) more than one; many: multicoloured, a multimillionaire, a multimillion-dollar business, a multi-ethnic society.
Nano- (technical) (in nouns and adjectives; used especially in units of measurement) one billionth: nanosecond, nanometre.
Neo- (in adjectives and nouns) new; in a later form: neo-Georgian, neo-fascist.
Neuro- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with the nerves: neuroscience, a neurosurgeon.
Non- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) not: nonsense, non-fiction, non-alcoholic, non-profit-making, non-committally. HELP NOTE: Most compounds with “non-” are written with a hyphen in BrE but are written as one word with no hyphen in NAmE.
Octo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) eight; having eight: octagon.
Off- (in nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs) not on; away from: offstage, offload.
Oft- (in adjectives) often: an oft-repeated claim.
Omni- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) of all things; in all ways or places: omnivore, omnipresent.
Ortho- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) correct; standard: orthodox, orthography.
Osteo- (in nouns and adjectives) connected with bones: osteopath.
1. (In verbs) greater, better, further, longer, etc.: outnumber, outwit, outgrow, outlive
2. (In nouns and adjectives) outside; outward; away from: outbuildings, outpatient, outlying, outgoing.
Over- (in nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs)
1. More than usual; too much: overproduction, overload, over-optimistic, overconfident, overanxious
2. Completely: overjoyed
3. Upper; outer; extra: overcoat, overtime
4. over; above: overcast, overhang.
Paed- (in nouns and adjectives) connected with children: paediatrician.
Palaeo- (especially BrE) (NAmE usually paleo-) (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected pan- (in adjectives and nouns) including all of sth; connected with the whole of sth: pan-African, pandemic with ancient times.
Para- (in nouns and adjectives)
1. Beyond: paranormal
2. similar to but not official or not fully qualified: paramilitary, a paramedic.
Patho- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with disease: pathogenesis (= the development of a disease) pathophysiology.
Penta- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) five; having five: pentagon, pentathlon.
Peta- (in nouns; used in units of measurement) 1015; one thousand million million.
Petro- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs)
1. Connected with rocks: petrology
2. Connected with petrol / gas: petrochemical.
Philo- (in nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs) liking: philanthropy.
Phono- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with sound or sounds: phonetic.
Photo- (in nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs)
1. Connected with light: photosynthesis
2. connected with photography: photogenic.
Physio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs)
1. Connected with nature
2. Connected with physiology.
Pico- (in nouns; used in units of measurement) 10-12; one million millionth.
Poly- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) many: polygamy, polyphonic.
Post- (in nouns, verbs and adjectives) after: a postgraduate, a post-Impressionist, the post-1945 period.
Pre- (in verbs, nouns and adjectives) before: preheat, precaution, pre-war, preseason training (= before a sports season starts).
Pro- (in adjectives) in favour of; supporting: pro-democracy.
Proto- (in nouns and adjectives) original; from which others develop: prototype, proto-modernist painters.
Pseudo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) not genuine; false or pretended: pseudo-intellectual, pseudo-science.
Psycho- (also psych-) (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with the mind: psychology, psychiatric.
Quadri- (also quadr-) (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) four; having four: quadrilateral, quadruplet.
Quasi- (in adjectives and nouns)
1. That appears to be sth but is not really so: a quasi-scientific explanation
2. Partly; almost: a quasi-official body.
Radio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs)
1. Connected with radio waves or broadcasting: radio-controlled
2. Connected with radioactivity: radiotherapy.
Re- (in verbs and related nouns, adjectives and adverbs) again: reapply, reincarnation, reassuring.
Rent-a- (Informal, often humorous) (in nouns and adjectives) showing that the thing mentioned can be hired / rented: rent-a-car, rent-a-crowd.
Retro- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) back or backwards: retrograde, retrospectively.
Self- (in nouns and adjectives) of, to or by yourself or itself: self-control, self-addressed, self-taught.
Semi- (in adjectives and nouns) half; partly: semicircular, semi-final.
Socio- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with society or the study of society: socio-economic, sociolinguistics.
Step- (in nouns) related as a result of one parent marrying again: stepmother.
1. (In nouns and adjectives) below; less than: sub-zero temperatures, a subtropical (= almost tropical) climate, substandard
2. (In nouns and adjectives) under: subway, submarine
3. (In verbs and nouns) a smaller part of sth: subdivide, subset.
1. (In adjectives, adverbs and nouns) extremely; more or better than normal: super-rich, superhuman, superglue
2. (In nouns and verbs) above; over: superstructure, superimpose.
Techno- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with technology: technophobe (= a person who is afraid of technology).
Tele- (in nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs)
1. Over a long distance; far: telepathy, telescopic
2. Connected with television: teletext
3. Done using a telephone: telesales.
Theo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with God or a god.
Thermo- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) connected with heat: thermonuclear, thermometer.
1. (In adjectives) across; beyond: transatlantic, transcontinental
2. (In verbs) into another place or state: transplant, transform.
Tri- (in nouns and adjectives) three; having three: tricycle, triangular.
Uber- (from German, Informal) (in nouns and adjectives) of the greatest or best kind; to a very large degree: His girlfriend was a real uber-babe, with long blonde hair and a big smile. The movie stars the uber-cool Jean Reno.
Ultra- (in adjectives and nouns) extremely; beyond a particular limit: ultra-modern, ultraviolet.
1. (In adjectives, adverbs and nouns) not; the opposite of: unable, unconsciously, untruth, an un-American concept such as subsidized medical treatment (= not typical of the US)
2. (In verbs that describe the opposite of a process): unlock, undo.
1. (In nouns and adjectives) below; beneath: undergrowth, undercover
2. (In nouns) lower in age or rank: the under-fives, an undergraduate
3. (In adjectives and verbs) not enough: underripe, undercooked.
Uni- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) one; having one: uniform, unilaterally.
Up- (in adjectives, verbs and related nouns) higher; upwards; towards the top of sth: upland, upturned, upgrade, uphill.
Ur- (formal) earliest or original.
Vice- (In nouns and related adjectives) next in rank to sb and able to represent them or act for them: vice-captain.

II. Suffixes
-Able, (-ible) (in adjectives)
1. That can or must be: calculable, taxable
2. Having the quality of: fashionable, comfortable, changeable
-ability, -ibility (in nouns): capability, responsibility
-Ably, -ibly (in adverbs): noticeably, incredibly.
-age suffix (in nouns) 1. The action or result of: breakage. 2. A state or condition of: bondage. 3. A set or group of: baggage. 4. An amount of: mileage. 5. The cost of: postage. 6. A place where: anchorage.
-aholic (in nouns) liking sth very much and unable to stop doing or using it: a shopaholic, a chocaholic.
-al suffix
1. (In adjectives) connected with: magical, verbal—see also –ally
2. (In nouns) a process or state of: survival.
-Alia (in plural nouns) items connected with the particular area of activity or interest mentioned: kitchenalia.
-Ance, -ence (in nouns) the action or state of: assistance, confidence.
-Ancy, -ency suffix (in nouns) the state or quality of: expectancy, complacency.
-Ant, -ent
1. (In adjectives) that is or does sth: significant, different
2. (In nouns) a person or thing that: inhabitant, deterrent.
-Arian (in nouns and adjectives) believing in; practising: humanitarian, disciplinarian.
-ary (in adjectives and nouns) connected with: planetary, budgetary.
-ate suffix
1. (In adjectives) full of or having the quality of: passionate, Italianate
2. (In verbs) to give the thing or quality mentioned to: hyphenate, activate
3. (In nouns) the status or function of: a doctorate
4. (In nouns) a group with the status or function of: the electorate
5. (Chemistry) (in nouns) a salt formed by the action of a particular acid: sulphate.
-athon (in nouns) an event in which a particular activity is done for a very long time, especially one organized to raise money for charity: a swimathon.
-ative (in adjectives) doing or tending to do sth: illustrative, talkative
-atively (in adverbs): creatively.
-ator (in nouns) a person or thing that does sth: creator, percolator.
Built (after adverbs and in compound adjectives) made in the particular way that is mentioned: a newly built station, American-built cars.
1. Having a particular centre: geocentric
2. (Often disapproving) based on a particular way of thinking: Eurocentric, ethnocentric.
-cide (in nouns)
1. The act of killing: suicide, genocide
2. A person or thing that kills: insecticide
-cidal (in adjectives): homicidal.
-cracy (in nouns) the government or rule of: democracy, bureaucracy.
-crat (in nouns) a member or supporter of a particular type of government or system: democrat, bureaucrat
-cratic (in adjectives): aristocratic.
-cy, -acy suffix (in nouns)
1. The state or quality of: Infancy, accuracy
2. The status or position of: chaplaincy.
-dimensional (in adjectives) having the number of dimensions mentioned: a multi-dimensional model.
-Dom suffix (in nouns)
1. The condition or state of: freedom, martyrdom
2. The rank of; an area ruled by: kingdom
3. The group of: officialdom.
-ectomy (in nouns) a medical operation in which part of the body is removed: appendectomy (= removal of the appendix).
-Ed, -d suffix
1. (In adjectives) having; having the characteristics of: talented, bearded, diseased
2. (Makes the past tense and past participle of regular verbs): hated, walked, loved.
-ee suffix (in nouns)
1. A person affected by an action: employee—compare –er, -or
2. A person described as or concerned with: absentee, refugee.
1. (In nouns) a person concerned with: auctioneer, mountaineer
2. (In verbs) (often disapproving) to be concerned with: profiteer, commandeer.
-en suffix
1. (In verbs) to make or become: blacken, sadden
2. (In adjectives) made of; looking like: wooden golden.
-er suffix
1. (In nouns) a person or thing that: lover, computer—compare –ee, -or
2. (In nouns) a person or thing that has the thing or quality mentioned: three-wheeler, foreigner
3. (In nouns) a person concerned with: astronomer, philosopher
4. (In nouns) a person belonging to: New Yorker
5. (Makes comparative adjectives and adverbs): wider, bigger, happier, sooner—compare –est.
-ery, -ry suffix (in nouns)
1. The group or class of: greenery, gadgetry
2. The state or character of: bravery, rivalry
3. The art or practice of: cookery, archery
4. A place where sth is made, grows, lives, etc.: bakery, orangery.
-ese suffix
1. (In adjectives and nouns) of a country or city; a person who lives in a country or city; the language spoken there: Chinese, Viennese
2. (In nouns) (often disapproving) the style or language of: journalese, officialese.
-esque suffix (in adjectives) in the style of: statuesque, Kafkaesque.
-ess suffix (in nouns) female: lioness, actress.
-est suffix (makes superlative adjectives and adverbs): widest, biggest, happiest, soonest.
-ette suffix (in nouns)
1. Small: kitchenette
2. Female: usherette
-fest (in nouns) a festival or large meeting involving a particular activity or with a particular atmosphere: a jazzfest, a talkfest, a lovefest.
-fold (in adjectives and adverbs) multiplied by; having the number of parts mentioned: to increase tenfold.
-ful suffix
1. (In adjectives) full of; having the qualities of; tending to: sorrowful, masterful, forgetful
2. (In nouns) an amount that fills sth: handful, spoonful.
-graphy combining form (in nouns)
1. A type of art or science: choreography, geography
2. A method of producing images: radiography
3. A form of writing or drawing: calligraphy, biography.
-hood suffix (in nouns)
1. The state or quality of: childhood, falsehood
2. A group of people of the type mentioned: the priesthood.
-ial suffix (in adjectives) typical of: dictatorial
-ially (in adverbs): officially.
-Ian, -an
1. (In nouns and adjectives) from; typical of: Bostonian, Brazilian, Shakespearian, Libran
2. (In nouns) a specialist in: mathematician
-iana, -ana (in nouns) a collection of objects, facts, stories, etc. connected with the person, place, period, etc. mentioned: Mozartiana, Americana, Victoriana.
-ic suffix
1. (In adjectives and nouns) connected with: scenic, economic, Arabic
2. (In adjectives) that performs the action mentioned: horrific, specific
-ical (in adjectives): comical
-ically (in adverbs): physically
-ics (in nouns) the science, art or activity of: physics, dramatics, athletics.
-ide suffix (chemistry) (in nouns) a compound of: chloride.
-Ify, -fy (in verbs) to make or become: purify, solidify.
-in (in nouns) an activity in which many people take part: a sit-in, a teach-in.
-Ing used to make the present participle of regular verbs: hating, walking, loving.
-ion (also –ation, -ition, -sion, -tion, -xion) (in nouns) the action or state of: hesitation, competition, confession.
-ish suffix (in adjectives)
1. from the country mentioned: Turkish, Irish
2. (Sometimes disapproving) having the nature of; like: childish
3. Fairly; approximately: reddish, thirtyish
-ishly (in adverbs): foolishly.
-ism suffix (in nouns)
1. The action or result of: criticism
2. The state or quality of: heroism
3. The teaching, system or movement of: Buddhism
4. Unfair treatment or hatred for the reason mentioned: racism
5. A feature of language of the type mentioned: Americanism, colloquialism
6. A medical condition or disease: alcoholism.
-ist suffix (in nouns and some related adjectives)
1. A person who believes or practises: atheist
2. A member of a profession or business activity: dentist
3. A person who uses a thing: violinist
4. A person who does sth: plagiarist.
-ista (in nouns) a person who is very enthusiastic about sth: fashionistas who are slaves to the latest trends.
-itis suffix (in nouns)
1. (Medical) a disease of: tonsillitis
2. (Informal, especially humorous) too much of; too much interest in: World Cup-it is.
-ite (in nouns) (often disapproving) a person who follows or supports: Blairite, Trotskyite.
-ity suffix (in nouns) the quality or state of: purity, oddity.
-ive (in nouns and adjectives) tending to; having the nature of: explosive, descriptive.
-Ize, -ise suffix (in verbs)
1. To become, make or make like: privatize, fossilize, Americanize
2. To speak, think, act, treat, etc. in the way mentioned: criticize, theorize, deputize, pasteurize
3. to place in: hospitalize
-ization, -isation (in nouns):immunization
-izationally, -isation (in adverbs):organizationally.
-less (in adjectives) 1. Without: treeless, meaningless. 2. Not doing; not affected by: tireless, selfless
-lessly (in adverbs): hopelessly
-lessness (in nouns): helplessness.
-let (in nouns) small; not very important: booklet, piglet, starlet.
-like (in adjectives) similar to; typical of: childlike, shell-like.
-ling (in nouns) (sometimes disapproving) small; not important: duckling, princeling.
-logue (NAmE also –log) (in nouns) talk or speech: a monologue.
-ly suffix
1. (In adverbs) in the way mentioned: happily, stupidly
2. (In adjectives) having the qualities of: cowardly, scholarly
3. (In adjectives and adverbs) at intervals of: hourly, daily.
-mania (in nouns) mental illness of a particular type: kleptomania
-maniac (in nouns): a pyromaniac.
-meister (in nouns) (Informal) a person thought of as skilled at a particular activity or important in a particular field: a horror-meister.
-ment (in nouns) the action or result of: bombardment, development
-mental (in adjectives): governmental, judgemental.
-most (in adjectives) the furthest: inmost (= the furthest in) southernmost, topmost (= the furthest up / nearest to the top).
-ness suffix (in nouns) the quality, state or character of: dryness, blindness, silliness.
-oid suffix (in adjectives and nouns) similar to: humanoid, rhomboid.
-ology (BrE also –logy) (in nouns) 1. A subject of study: sociology, genealogy. 2. A characteristic of speech or writing: phraseology, trilogy
-Ological, -logical (also –ologic, -logic) (in adjectives): pathological
-ologist, -logist (in nouns): biologist.
-or suffix (in nouns) a person or thing that: actor.
-ory suffix 1. (In adjectives) that does: explanatory. 2. (In nouns) a place for: observatory.
-ous suffix (in adjectives) having the nature or quality of: poisonous, mountainous
-ously (in adverbs): gloriously
-ousness (in nouns): spaciousness.
-phile (in nouns and adjectives) liking a particular thing; a person who likes a particular thing: Anglophile, bibliophile.
-philia (in nouns) love of sth, especially connected with a sexual attraction that is not considered normal: paedophilia.
-phobe (in nouns) a person who dislikes a particular thing or particular people: Anglophobe, xenophobe.
-phobia (in nouns) a strong unreasonable fear or hatred of a particular thing: claustrophobia, xenophobia.
-scape combining form (in nouns) a view or scene of: landscape, seascape, moonscape.
-ship suffix (in nouns)
1. The state or quality of: ownership, friendship
2. The status or office of: citizenship, professorship
3. Skill or ability as: musicianship
4. The group of: membership.
-some suffix
1. (In adjectives) producing; likely to: fearsome, quarrelsome
2. (In nouns) a group of the number mentioned: a foursome.
-ster suffix (in nouns) a person who is connected with or has the quality of: gangster, youngster.
-Th suffix
1. (in ordinal numbers): sixth, fifteenth, hundredth
2. (In nouns) the action or process of: growth.
-ure suffix (in nouns) the action, process or result of: closure, failure.
-ward (also less frequent –wards) (in adjectives) in the direction of: backward, eastward, homeward
-wards (also –ward especially in NAmE) (in adverbs): onwards, forwards.
-ways suffix (in adjectives and adverbs) in the direction of: lengthways, sideways.
-wise suffix (in adjectives and adverbs)
1. in the manner or direction of: likewise, clockwise
2. (Informal) concerning: Things aren’t too good businesswise.
-y suffix
1. (Also –ey) (in adjectives) full of; having the quality of: dusty, clayey
2. (In adjectives) tending to: runny, sticky
3. (In nouns) the action or process of: inquiry
4. (also –ie) (in nouns, showing affection): doggy, daddy.

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